Are plastics based on renewable raw materials manufactured from natural biopolymers (starch, gluten, collagen, lignin, etc.) or from polymers.
In connection with wood and natural fiber acrylate, epoxide, polyurethane and polyester resins are used most of all. It is not possible to shape or deform duroplastic materials once hardened.
Fiber composite material
Fiber composite materials consist of two components: Firstly, a matrix of fiber reinforcing plastics (duroplastic materials, elastomers, thermoplastics) and secondly, reinforcing fibers or natural fibers. This creates an interaction leading to a material with the extremely favorable characteristics of both materials.
To start with, natural and polypropylene fibers are turned into needle felt, which is then heated and pressed into a form.Molded parts are characterized by very good mechanical properties, resulting from the longer fiber lengths.
During extrusion, a molding compound is produced of natural fiber and the duro- or thermoplastic materials and subsequently placed into the molding tool. The material then hardens under pressure and at a temperature of 130 to 150 degrees.
A crop plant originally used for the production of linen.
From specially grown for fiber production plants, such as flax, hemp, jute, sisal.
For thousands of years hemp fibers have been used for clothing, cords, ropes and netting. Most important applications for hemp fibers today are special pulps, composite materials and insulating materials.
Plastic in which the fibers of the composite material are embedded.
Natural fiber reinforced plastics (NFRP)
Materials where fibers such as flax, hemp, kenaf, sisal and alpaca are additionally included for stability reinforcement are defined as natural fiber reinforced plastics. In order to produce modern materials of natural fibers a binding agent will be required in processing e.g. polypropylene (PP). The embedded natural fibers give high stability to the plastic material. It is also possible to replace synthetic polymers by biopolymers. These can be plant and animal adhesives, glues and resins.
As raw materials in natural fiber reinforced materials fibers of flax, hemp, jute, sisal as well as alpaca wool.
NFK molded parts
Compression molding is one of the most important processes in the processing of natural fiber reinforced plastics. NFK molded parts can be produced with both thermoplastic and duroplastic matrix.
Polylactides, also called PLA, are plastic materials, which become deformed by heat. They are very environment friendly since they can be degraded by microorganisms.
PP is a thermoplastic material. It offers high stiffness, hardness and structural strength.
Production of natural fibers
The production of natural fibers is remarkably independent of crude oil and natural gas consumption. Comparatively small amounts of energy and other fossil raw materials must be used for the production of natural fibers. The primary energy source is the solar energy used by the plant.
Impact resistance of a component resulting in breaking of the test rod during bench tests.
Resistance of a component against mechanical deformation.
Injection molding is the most common method of plastic processing. With this method a usable molded part is cast from granulated plastic or natural fiber granulate. The liquefied molding material is injected into a tool which determines the shape and surface structure of the finished part.
Thermoplastic compression molding
In the so-called one-shot method fleece made of natural or PP fibers is heated up to 170 to 180 degrees and compressed in the forming press. During this process, the formed part will be produced including decorative coating and foam without using additional adhesives.
This material can be deformed by heat and there are no limits in melting it down and remold it. Above all, polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene are used in conjunction with wood and natural fibers. Among organic plastics it will be lignin and the starch based polylactid acid (PLA).